Ten years of research on the false-consensus effect: For marijuana use, there was an interaction between AFU and individual use at WI, such that the effect of AFU was stronger as adolescents reported a higher frequency of use at WI for both alcohol and marijuana. Level 2 average school substance use refers to the average frequency of use at WI within each school. As hypothesized, AFU had an interaction with friendship quality for cigarette persistence; AFU was stronger when friends were closer. Contrary to hypotheses, there was an interaction between AFU and personal marijuana use, such that the effect of AFU increased as personal use increased.
The effect of PFU was significantly stronger than AFU for cigarette and marijuana initiation, indicating, as other researchers have argued e.
Teenage sex, drugs and alcohol use: problems identifying the cause of risky behaviors.
PFU had a positive relationship with both alcohol and cigarette initiation and held for alcohol use even when accounting for a Bonferroni correction. Nominated individuals who were not in the sample schools were also specially coded and precluded from the friendship networks because of a lack of an ID number. This does not mean that PFU is always a sufficient proxy variable for AFU; similarity between the two seems to depend on substance type and use outcome. Thus, another important question is whether AFU and PFU effects differ in predicting different substance use outcomes. PFU also interacted with WI personal use for alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. These models had four steps: